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  • Achuthan, C.R., Babu, B.H. and Padikkala, J. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Rosa damascena. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2003, Vol.41, No.5, pp. 357-361.
  • Ames, B.N., Shigenaga, M.K.,  and Hagen, T.M. 1993. Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Degenerative Diseases of Ageing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1993 September 1; 90 (17): 7915–7922. Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720.
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  • Bonifazi, W.L. 2002. Statins and Supplements.
  • Baba, S., Osakabe, N., Yasuda, A., Natsume, M., Takizawa, T., Nakamura, T., Terao, J., 2000.  Absorption of ()-epicatechin upon intake of chocolate and cocoa in human volunteers.  Free Radical Research 33, 635–641.
  • Challem, J. 1996. Antioxidants Reduce the Risk Posed By Cholesterol. The Nutrition Reporter™ newsletter.
  • Chan, G., Collins, J.,& Horn, T. 1997. Antioxidants may still have a Role in HIV Treatment. Treatment Issues, Volume 11 Number 9; September 1997.
  • CMA. 2003. Chocolate & health. A scientific overview for the health professional. Chocolate Manufacturers Association.
  • Craigmill, A.L. 2000. ME and My Shadow: Everyone Is Exposed to Methyleugenol. Environmental Toxicology Newsletter. "Published Occasionally at Irregular Intervals".Vol. 20 No. 4 -- July 2000. from: Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(4), April 2000.
  • EAIS, 2003. The Ellagic acid information site.
  • Gemma C, Mesches MH, Sepesi B, Choo K, Holmes DB, Bickford PC.2002. Diets enriched in foods with high antioxidant activity reverse age-induced decreases in cerebellar beta-adrenergic function and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. J Neurosci. 2002 Jul 15;22(14):6114-20. 
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  • Emmert, D. H. and Kirchner, J. T. 1999. The Role of Vitamin E in the Prevention of Heart Disease. Arch. Fam. Med., November 1, 1999; 8(6): 537 - 542.
  • Erickson, L. 2003. Rooibos Tea: Research into Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties.HerbalGram. 2003;59:34-45 © American Botanical Council .
  • Fawzi, W.W. et al 2004. A Randomized Trial of Multivitamin Supplements and HIV Disease Progression and Mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine, July 1, 2004; vol 351: pp 23-32.
  • Gorman, C. 2003. The No. 1 Killer of Women. Time V162(6). Aug. 11 2003.
  • Greenberg, B.L., Semba, R.D., Vink, P.E., Farley, J.J., Sivapalasingam, M., Steketee, R.W., Thea, D.M., Schoenbaum, E.E. 1997. Vitamin A deficiency and maternal-infant transmissions of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United States. AIDS. 1997 Mar. 11 (3):325-32.
  • Gregg, D.W. 1998. Antioxidants - The Next Generation and a New Theory of Degenerative Disease 188 Calle La Montana Moraga, CA 94556.
  • Hammerstone JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH. Procyanidin content and variation in some commonly consumed foods. J Nutr 2000;130:2086S-92S.
  • Heiss et al.2003. Vascular Effects of Cocoa Rich in Flavan-3-ols. JAMA.2003; 290: 1030-1031.
  • Hersh, T. 1998. Oxidative Stress in Chronic Liver Disease: The Role of Glutathione. Emory University.
  • Ho, D.D., Neumann, A.U., Perelson, A.S., Chen, W. Leonard, J.M., Markowitz, M. 1995. Rapid Turnover of Plasma Virions and CD4 Lymphocytes in HIV-1 Infection. SFI Working Paper Abstract.
  • Hollman, P.C., Van Het Hof, K.H., Tijburg, L.B., Katan, M.B., 2001.  Addition of milk does not affect the absorption of flavonols from tea in man.  Free Radicals Research 34, 297–300.
  • Holly, J.L. 2003. Popeye and Spinach - The Cartoons Had It Right. Southeast Texas Medical Associates
  • Holt RR, Schramm DD, Keen CL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz H. Chocolate consumption and platelet function.  JAMA.  2002; 287:2212-3.
  • Holt RR, Lazarus SA, Sullards MC, Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Hammerstone JF, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH, Keen CL. 2002.  Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa.  Am J Clin Nutr.  2002 Oct;76(4):798-804.
  • Hosein, S. 1997. HIV and antioxidants. Treatment Update 77 - Vol. 7, No. 7.
  • Hutcherson, K., Mann, J., McCauley, E.,  Powers, M. & Wilson. C. 2000. HIV, CD4, and More.
  • Johnson, D.W. & Mokler, D.J. 2001. Barley Grass and Green Barley Grass Juice. Continuing Education Module. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England. This module was produced in association  with Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.
  • Kang, S.S., et al. 1986. Protein-bound homocysteine. A possible risk factor for coronary artery disease. J. Clin. Invest., Vol. 77, 1986, pp. 1482-86
  • Keen CL, Holt RR, Polagruto JA, Wang JF, Schmitz HH.  Cocoa flavanols and cardiovascular health.  Phytochem Rev 2002; 1: 231-40.
  • Keen CL, Holt RR, Carrasquedo F, Gershwin ME, Mao T, Schmitz HH.  Flavanol-rich foods and cardiovascular health.  In: Dhalla N, Berkowitz H, Singal PK, eds.  Frontiers in Cardiovascular Health.  Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003:209-26.
  • Kerr, M.2003. Diet Can Be as Effective as Statin Therapy in Lowering Cholesterol. A DGReview of :"Effects of a Dietary Portfolio of Cholesterol-Lowering Foods vs Lovastatin on Serum Lipids and C-Reactive Protein"Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Derr JA, Mitchell DC. The role of fatty acid saturation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apoliproteins. Effects of whole food diets high in cocoa butter, olive oil, soybean oil, dairy butter and milk chocolate on the plasma lipids of young men. Metabolism. 1993;42:130-4.
  • Halliwell, B. 1994. Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease: Curiosity, Cause, or Consequence? Lancet 1994;344:721-724.
  • Kris-Ethertona, P.M.,  and Keenb, C.L. 2002. Evidence that the antioxidant flavonoids beneficial for cardiovascular health. 
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Keen CL. 2002. Evidence that the antioxidant flavonoids in tea and cocoa are beneficial for cardiovascular health.  Curr Opin Lipidol.  2002 Feb;13(1):41-9.  Review.
  • Larsen, H.R. 1999. Folic Acid: Don't Be Without It!
  • Libman,H. and Barlam, T. 2003. Virtual Patient Reference Library: VP02 — A Young Man with HIV. Pathophysiology of HIV. The Carl J. Shapiro Institute for Education and Research at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
  • Malorni W, Rivabene R, Lucia BM, Ferrara R, Mazzone AM, Cauda R, Paganelli R. 1998. The role of oxidative imbalance in progression to AIDS: effect of the thiol supplier N-acetylcysteine.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Nov 20;14(17):1589-96.
  • Marston, B. and De Cock, K. 2004. Multivitamins, Nutrition, and Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Disease in Africa. The New England Journal of Medicine, July 1, 2004; vol 351: pp 78-80.
  • Mastaloudis, A., Morrow, J.D., Hopkins, D. W., Devaraj, S., Traber, M.G. 2004. Antioxidant supplementation prevents exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Radical Biology and Medicine
    Volume: 36, Issue: 10, =ay 15, 2004 pp. 1329-1341.
  • Milner, J.A. 2002. New Insights into the Mechanism of New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Antioxidants. Nutrition Science Research Group. Division of Cancer Prevention, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD 20892 Bethesda, MD 20892.
  • Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. 2002. Vitamin e and Cognitive Decline in Older Persons. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:1125-1132.
  • Oliveri, C.S. 2003. Nutraceuticals, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidants—What Are They All About? SS-210-03 Senior Series. Family and Consumer Sciences, South Centers, Ohio State University Extension.
  • OU,B., HUANG, D., HAMPSCH-WOODILL, M.,FLANAGAN, J.A., AND DEEMER, E.K. Brunswick Laboratories, 6 Thacher Lane, Wareham, Massachusetts 02571. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 3122-3128
  • OU, B., HUANG, D., HAMPSCH-WOODILL, M., FLANAGAN, J. A. 2003. When east meets west: the relationship between yin-yang and antioxidation-oxidation. The FASEB Journal.Brunswick Laboratories, Wareham, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Packer, L. 1997. Oxidants, antioxidant nutrients and the athlete. J. Sports Sci. 1997 Jun;15(3):353-63.
  • Pearson, D.A., Paglieroni, T.G., Rein, D., Wun, T., Gosselin, R., Schramm, D.D., Wang, J., Schmitz, H.H., Holt, R.R., Keen, C.L.  Effect of aspirin and cocoa procyanidins on platelet-dependent hemostasis.  FASEB J 2001; 15 (4): A285-A285 Part 1.
  • PERCIVAL, M. 1998. Antioxidants. CLINICAL NUTRITION INSIGHTS. NUT031 1/96 Rev. 10/98. Copyright © 1996 Advanced Nutrition Publications, Inc., Revised 1998.
  • Rein D, Lotito S, Holt RR, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Fraga CG.  Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma oxidation status.  J Nutr.  2000; 130:2109S-2114S.
  • Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T MD, Pearson DA, Schmitz HH, Gosselin MT, Keen CL. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:30-5.
  • Ri. 2003. Are you eating foods with a high ORAC value? 
  • Richelle, M., Tavazzi, I., Ensten, M., Offord, E.A., 1999.  Plasma kinetics of epicatechin from black chocolate.  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 22–26.
  • Rios LY, Bennett RN, Lazarus SA, Remesy C, Scalbert A, Williamson G. 2002. Cocoa procyanidins are stable during gastric transit in humans.  Am J Clin Nutr.  2002 Nov;76(5):1106-10.
  • Schewe, T., and Sies, H. Flavonoids as protectants against prooxidant enzymes. Biol. Med. 34, 243–253, February 3, 2003
  • Shevchuk-O'Quinn, O.A. 1998 Medical Edibles. 
  • Schmidt, P. 2003. Chocolate's Potential Health Benefits – and its Effect on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients. Treatment & Research Information.
  • Schramm DD,  Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, Keen CL. Honey with high levels  of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric  Food Chem 2003; 51: 1732-5.
  • Schramm DD,  Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Kirkpatrick NJ, Polagruto JA, Ensunsa JL,  Schmitz HH, Keen CL. Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics  of cocoa flavanols. Life Sci 2003; 73: 857-869.
  • Schroeter H, Holt RR, Orozoco TJ, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.  Milk and absorption of dietary flavanols.  Nature 2003; 426: 787-78.
  • Semba, R.D., et al. 1993. Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2149–2154.
  • Semba, R.D., et al. 1994. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:1593–1597.
  • Semba, R.D. 1997. Overview of the potential role of vitamin A in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1997 Jun;421:107-12.
  • Semba, R.D.1999. Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. J Nutr. 1999 Apr;129(4):783-91.
  • Steinberg, F.M., Bearden, M. M., Keen, C. L. 2003. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. (Review). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Feb, 2003. http://www.findarticles
  • Swatsitang,P., Tucker G., and Salter, A. 2000. Antioxidant in fruits. Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough Leicestershire, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom.
  • Tang, A. M. 2001. Oxidative Stress in HIV-1-Infected Injection Drug Users. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health.
  • Taylor, E.W. 1999. Why nutrition is critical for surviving HIV. . Published in the 4th quarter 1999 issue of Choices, a newsletter of CAMA, the Complementary~Alternative Medical Association. The University of Georgia.
  • Title, L.M.,   Cummings, P.M.,   Giddens, K. 2000. Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Alternative Medicine Review,  Dec, 2000.
  • Tuchscherer, T. 2003. Chocolate: Possible Health Implications.
  • USDHHS, 2002. Guidance for Industry. Status of Clove Oil and Eugenol for Anesthesia of Fish. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Veterinary Medicine.
  • Verhoef, Petra, et al. 1996. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: relation with vitamins B-6, B-12, and folate. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, May 1, 1996, pp. 845-59
  • Wang, J.F., Schramm, D.D., Holt, R.R., Ensunsa, J.L., Fraga, C.G., Schmitz, H.H., Keen, C.L., 2000.  A dose-response effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and indices of oxidative damage.  Journal of Nutrition 130, 2109S–2114S.
  • Weisburger, J.H. 2001. Chemopreventive Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols on Chronic Diseases Experimental Biology and Medicine 226:891-897, 2001. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. MINIREVIEW. American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
  • Wesgro Background Report. 2000. The Rooibos Industry in the Western Cape.
  • ZHU, Q.Y., HOLT, R.R., LAZARUS, S.A., OROZCO, T.J. AND KEEN, C.L. 2002. Inhibitory Effects of Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidin Oligomers on Free Radical-Induced Erythrocyte Hemolysis Exp Biol Med Vol. 227(5):321–329, 2002. 321.pdf
  • Zhu QY, Hackman RM, Ensunsa JL, Holt RR, Keen CL.  Antioxidative Activities of Oolong Tea.  J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50: 6929-6934.
  • Zhu Q, Holt R, Lazarus S, Ensunsa J, Hammerstone J, Schmitz H, Keen C. Stability of the flavan-3-ols epicatechin and catechin and related dimeric procyanidins derived from cocoa.  J Agric Food Chem.  2002; 50:1700-5.

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