Dietary Vitamins
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Comparison of Current RDIs*. New DRIs** and ULs***





Vitamin A

5000 IU

900 mcg (3000 IU)

3000 mcg (10,000IU)

Vitamin C

60 mg

90 mg

2000 mg

Vitamin D

400 IU (10 mcg)

15 mcg (600 IU)

50 mcg (2000 IU)

Vitamin E

30 IU (20 mg)

15 mg #

1000 mg

Vitamin K


120 mcg



1.5 mg

1.2 mg



1.7 mg

1.3 mg



20 mg

16 mg

35 mg

Vitamin B-6

2 mg

1.7 mg

100 mg


400 mcg (0 4 mg)

400 mcg from food.
200 mcg synthetic

1000 mcg synthetic

Vitamin B-12





300 mcg

30 mcg


Pantothenic acid

10 mg




Not established

550 mg

3500 mg

* The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the value established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in nutrition labeling. It was based initially on the highest 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for each nutrient, to assure that needs were met for all age groups.
** The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are the most recent set of dietary recommendations established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, 1997-2001. They replace previous RDAs, and may be the basis for eventually updating the RDIs. The value shown here is the highest DRI for each nutrient.
*** The Upper Limit (UL) is the upper level of intake considered to be safe for use by adults, incorporating a safety factor. In some cases, lower ULs have been established for children.
# Historical vitamin E conversion factors were amended in the DRI report, so that 15 mg is defined as the equivalent
of 22 IU of natural vitamin E or 33 IU of synthetic vitamin E.
## It is recommended that women of childbearing age obtain 400 mcg of synthetic folic acid from fortified breakfast cereals or dietary supplements, in addition to dietary folate.
### It is recommended that people over 50 meet the B-12 recommendation through fortified foods or supplements, to improve bioavailability.
ND Upper Limit not determined. No adverse effects observed from high intakes of the nutrient.

Source:  Council for Responsible Nutrition


links   Calcium Pangamate


From the online book - nutrition and cancer. The Role of  Selenium, Zinc, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) in Cancer:

The 12-year mortality follow-up of 3000 participants of the ground-breaking Basel Study showed that overall cancer mortality was associated with low mean plasma levels of carotene and Vitamin C; stomach and gastrointestinal cancer victims had lower Vitamin C levels. It was concluded that low plasma levels of all major essential antioxidants was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancer mortality;


Always consult your doctor. This site is for information purposes and does not prescribe products. Confirm all details with a specialist (see disclaimer).

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